¿Alguna vez te has imaginado qué pasaría si los puentes de las carreteras pudieran hablar ?: “¿Que me rompí un brazo? ¿Que tengo una rotura de un tendón de acero? … ”Bueno, ya no están demasiado lejos. 36 1 La semana pasada, tuve la oportunidad de participar en una presentación de Jacques Cartier y Champlain Bridges Incorporated (JCCBI) en el GTA, y aprendí sobre esta instrumentación inteligente para vigas de puentes instaladas de monitoreo de tensión / deformación. Esto ayudó a los propietarios de puentes con el monitoreo del estado estructural en tiempo real y el proceso de toma de decisiones, es decir, ¿si el puente es seguro para la carga de tráfico o no? Internet de las cosas es un término familiar en estos días; escuchamos sobre casas, teléfonos, electrodomésticos, automóviles inteligentes y conectados. Entonces, ¿por qué no fantaseamos con puentes inteligentes? Las tecnologías inteligentes se han adaptado en varios sectores de la ingeniería civil. Esto incluye sensores para medir tensiones, deformaciones, variaciones de humedad y temperatura, localización y detección de grietas. El uso de materiales inteligentes como las aleaciones con memoria de forma también se está volviendo popular.

Monitoreo inteligente de puentes

El desarrollo técnico tanto en materiales de construcción (por ejemplo, materiales con memoria de forma) como en sistemas de monitoreo (por ejemplo, medición inalámbrica en tiempo real de temperatura, deformación, etc.) ha planteado el concepto de monitoreo inteligente de puentes (i-Bridge Monitoring). El enfoque visionario es que los lugares propensos a sufrir daños a temprana edad, como los extremos de las vigas, cables de pretensado, etc., están equipados con instrumentos inalámbricos inteligentes para el monitoreo en tiempo real. 35 1 Los datos de estos puentes individuales se pueden recopilar e integrar a través de una red de estructuras interconectadas a nivel local, regional o provincial. Los datos recopilados se pueden transferir a través de Internet a una estación central para monitoreo en tiempo real, interpretación e investigación adicional, si es necesario. El término “necesario” significa: ciertos datos requieren una interpretación adicional por parte de un operador o ingeniero si se informa de un evento de traspaso del límite o umbral. Además, los datos recopilados se pueden utilizar para actualizar los límites y criterios definidos para futuras mediciones. Toda la información se puede almacenar y analizar en las nubes y se puede acceder a ella en cualquier momento y lugar. El uso de materiales de construcción inteligentes también puede desempeñar un papel importante en los puentes inteligentes. Un uso sistemático de materiales autorreparables (como los que se observan en el hormigón de alto rendimiento una vez que se produce una grieta) o materiales con memoria de forma sería de gran ayuda. Esto puede reducir la tasa de trabajo de mantenimiento necesario. La implementación de un marco de monitoreo de puentes inteligente puede ser muy útil para planificar una estrategia de mantenimiento más exitosa, una estrategia financiera y un presupuesto efectivos. Dicho marco también aumentará la vida útil de los puentes, así como el rendimiento general. Bueno, todo esto es cierto si los autos voladores personales no llegan primero.  

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